Anger and depression management: Psychoeducational skill training interventions for women caregivers of a relative with dementia
Citation Coon, D., Thompson, L., Steffen, A.Sorocco, K. & Gallagher-Thompson, D. (2003). Anger and depression management: Psychoeducational skill training interventions for women caregivers of a relative with dementia. The Gerontologist, 43(3), 678-689.
Design Randomized controlled study
Participants The participants of this study were N=169 female dementia caregivers age 50 and older
Outcome / Dependent Variables The following measures were used to measure their respective dependent variables: Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy - to determine participant's beliefs about their ability to handle caregiver challenges, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory State Anger Scale - to determine self-reported levels of anger, Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist - to determine self-reported anger-hostility and depression, Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised - to determine self-reported use of different coping strategies, and Folstein MMSE was used to screen out cognitively impaired caregivers.
Procedure The intervention involved several levels of treatment interventions: (2-hr workshop of 8-10 caregivers for 8 weeks & 1 skill reinforcement session at 1-month intervals. Groups involved lecture, discussion, and homework). Anger management class: This class presented cognitive-behavioral model and treatment rationale, development of assertiveness skills, and thinking ahead to frustrating situations. Depression management class: This class was based on social-learning theory, and focused on increasing caregiver life-satisfaction, and teaching self-monitoring techniques and problem-solving to maintain high levels of engagement in positive activities. Results from the experimental groups were compared to a wait-list control group.
Outcomes Participants in both anger management and depression management groups had significant reductions in their levels of anger or hostility and depression from Time 1 to Time 2 in comparison to participants in the control group. Self-efficacy significantly increased for participants in both intervention groups.
Participation in the Anger Management class also led to increases in positive coping (due to emphasis on behavioral and cognitive skill training).
Author Coon, D., Thompson, L., Steffen, A.Sorocco, K. & Gallagher-Thompson, D.