Dementia

Dementia: Is This Dementia and What Does It Mean?

Introduction

What does it mean when someone is said to have dementia? For some people, the word conjures up scary images of “crazy” behavior and loss of control. In fact, the word dementia describes a group of symptoms that includes short-term memory loss, confusion, the inability to problem-solve, the inability to complete multi-step activities such as preparing a meal or balancing a checkbook, and, sometimes, personality changes or unusual behavior.

阿尔茨海默氏病和看护 (Alzheimer’s Disease and Caregiving)

概述

阿尔茨海默氏病 (Alzheimer’s disease, AD) 是一种可引起大脑异常变化的疾病,主要影响记忆和其他心智能力。阿尔茨海默氏病是一种疾病,并非自然衰老的正常表现。记忆丧失是常见的首发症状。随着病情的发展,推理能力、语言能力、决策能力、判断力和其他关键技能逐步丧失,使得在没有他人(通常来说是家庭成员或朋友)帮助的情况下无法进行日常生活。个性和行为有时会发生不易相处的改变,但这并非必然会出现的症状。

阿尔茨海默氏病对被诊断为 AD 的人和那些承担看护责任的人都构成了真正的挑战,但这并不意味着不再有欢声笑语、亲朋相伴的时刻。AD 通常会有一个缓慢的发病进程,因而人们也就有时间适应诊断、提前规划、共度有品质的时光。

有近 1500 万的美国人为患有阿尔茨海默氏病或其他痴呆症的人提供无偿护理服务(阿尔茨海默氏病协会 (Alzheimer’s Association) 2011 年事实与数字)。阿洛伊斯·阿尔茨海默 (Alois Alzheimer) 博士是一位德国精神病学家和神经病理学家,他在 1907 年发现了首次发表的“早老性痴呆”病例,这一疾病现在被称为阿尔茨海默氏病。

看护者理解痴呆行为的指南 (Caregiver’s Guide to Understanding Dementia Behaviors)

序言

护理患有痴呆症的亲人会给家庭和看护者带来很多挑战。患有阿尔茨海莫氏病和相关疾病症状的痴呆症患者会出现渐进性发展的大脑功能紊乱,这使得他们越来越难以记住事物、清晰地思考、与他人沟通以及照顾自己。此外,痴呆症还会引起情绪波动,甚至改变一个人的个性和行为。本资料书提供了一些实用的策略,用以处理在照顾痴呆症患者时经常遇到的令人不安的行为问题和沟通困难。

 

与痴呆症患者沟通的十大技巧

我们不是天生就知道如何与痴呆症患者进行沟通,但是我们可以学习。改进沟通技巧将会帮助您减轻看护压力,并且有可能提高您与亲人关系的质量。您在护理痴呆症患者时可能遇到一些不易处理的行为,良好的沟通技巧还将增强您对此类行为的处理能力。

为互动设定一种积极的情绪。您的态度和肢体语言比您的话语更能传达您的感觉和想法。以一种愉快和尊重的方式与您的亲人交谈,以此营造一种积极的情绪。使用面部表情、语调和肢体接触来帮助传达您的消息和表达您的感情。

Bệnh Alzheimer và Chăm Sóc (Alzheimer’s Disease and Caregiving)

Tổng quan

Bathing (for dementia)

  • People with dementia are often resistant to bathing. They will claim they just showered, or that they will do it later, or outright refuse to bathe. Unless someone is incontinent, daily bathing is not necessary. Pick your battles—once or twice a week may be sufficient. Coupling bathing with an activity is sometimes helpful, e.g. going to the doctor or out to lunch or having a bowl of ice cream.

HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND)

Since the start of the AIDS epidemic more than three decades ago, doctors, family and friend caregivers, and patients have observed that some people with the disease experience decline in brain function and movement skills, as well as shifts in behavior and mood. This disorder is called HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorder, or “HAND.” Although advances in antiretroviral therapy from the past two decades have decreased the severity of HAND, symptoms still persist in 30–50% of people living with HIV. For many people, these symptoms continue to affect activities of daily living.

Now it is My Turn to Be There for Him

My name is Julie Pacheco, I'm 47 years old and I take care of my step father Jack who is 90 years old. He suffers from dementia.

When I was 26 my mother married this man and he became a part of our crazy, dysfunctional family. By dysfunctional  I mean mainly myself, who at that time, was a single mother sufferring from the disease of addiction.

So Tired From All My Parents' Doctor Appointments That I Hate Seeing One Myself

I have multiple illnesses and receive only SSI, though I did try to work some freelance after getting disability. I am currently living with, and trying to look after two parents. They are in their late 80s/early 90s and very luckily have only mild dementia. I attribute some of this to the fact that I am there and, being a person who is interested in many things, create a stimulating environment.

We Had Promised Each Other We Would Never Leave One Another

For 3 years, it was forgetting just little things. He never thought anything about it as his job was very stressful. He had a mandatory work meeting down state which he went to. But he called me on the phone saying that he was lost, and that’s when I knew there was something wrong.

I found him on the side of the road; I had told him to park and stay in his car. We went home and he seemed fine for a while.

針對有失禁症狀之癡呆症患者的護理建議 (Incontinence and Dementia - Chinese)

針對有失禁症狀之癡呆症患者的護理建議

  • 與醫生討論失禁問題是否由藥物、前列腺增生或尿道感染引起,特別是突然出現失禁症狀的患者。

 

  • 研究各種失禁用品。市面上有許多失禁用襯墊和內衣。每個人的需要各有不同,應選擇最適合的產品。在防護內褲中加上襯墊能增加吸收量。不要稱之為成人紙尿褲,應稱作防護內褲。

 

  • 癡呆症患者通常對穿著防護內褲表現抗拒。可能需要一些技巧讓他們習慣穿著,例如,在早上穿衣服時將防護內褲自然地融合到穿衣的一部分。先把襯墊放在內褲裡,在失禁病人更換衣服或從廁所站起來時,把內褲遞給他們。如果病人表現出抗拒情緒,您可以對他們說「它能幫助我更好地照顧你,這樣我就不會擔心了」,或者可以說「這對您有好處,穿上它您就不用再趕忙跑去洗手間,也不必擔心因此摔倒了。」

 

  • 使用橡膠或一次性塑膠防護床墊、椅子、汽車座椅等。

 

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