Fact Sheets

Traumatic Brain Injury

Introduction

Each year, an estimated 2.5 million people in the U.S. sustain a traumatic brain injury. The impact on their families and caregivers is immense. This fact sheet discusses traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its consequences, and provides information about the helpful resources available to families caring for a loved one affected by TBI.

 

Brain Tumor

Introduction

A brain tumor is a collection of damaged cells that multiply out of control within the brain. Also called a neoplasm, growth, mass, or lesion, a brain tumor is classified as either primary or secondary (metastatic), and can be benign or malignant.

Frontotemporal Dementia

Definition

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a degenerative condition of the front (anterior) part of the brain. It differs from other causes of dementia such as Alzheimer’s, Lewy body, and Creutzfeldt Jakob’s diseases. FTD is currently understood as a clinical syndrome that groups together Pick's disease, primary progressive aphasia, and semantic dementia. The areas of the brain affected by FTD—the frontal and anterior temporal lobes—control reasoning, personality, movement, speech, social graces, language, and some aspects of memory.

Hypoxic-Anoxic Brain Injury

Introduction and Definition

The brain requires a constant flow of oxygen to function normally. A hypoxic-anoxic injury, also known as HAI, occurs when that flow is disrupted, essentially starving the brain and preventing it from performing vital biochemical processes. Hypoxic refers to a partial lack of oxygen; anoxic means a total lack. In general, the more complete the deprivation, the more severe the harm to the brain and the greater the consequences.

Huntington's Disease

Definition

Huntington’s Disease (HD), also called Huntington’s chorea, is an inherited brain disorder that results in loss of physical control and mental capacity. Symptoms typically appear between the ages of 30 and 50, but may appear earlier or later. HD is characterized by progressive physical, cognitive, and psychological deterioration.

 

Stroke

Definition

A stroke is an injury to the brain caused when the brain's blood supply is interrupted or greatly reduced. The brain is deprived of oxygen and nutrients, and brain cells begin to die within minutes. For that reason, a stroke is considered a medical emergency and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.

 

Parkinson’s Disease and Caregiving

What Is Parkinson’s Disease?

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive, neurological disease that mainly affects movement but can also affect cognition. Parkinson’s disease results from the destruction of nerve cells in a part of the brain called the basal ganglia.

Dementia with Lewy Bodies

Definition

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

What Is ALS?

El cuidado del paciente (Caregiving)

Se estima que entre un 19 y un 22% de las familias de Estados Unidos cuidan de un adulto con trastornos cognitivos. Los problemas cognitivos se presentan en toda una gama de enfermedades y trastornos como la enfermedad de Alzheimer, la enfermedad de Parkinson, la apoplejía, los traumatismos craneales y la demencia provocada por el SIDA. Aunque cada enfermedad tiene sus características peculiares, los familiares y cuidadores suelen compartir problemas, situaciones y estrategias comunes, independientemente del diagnóstico específico.

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